Barbara Drew, RN, PhD, FAAN

RECALL FACULTY
Physiological Nursing
+1 415 476-4302

My program of research focuses on expanding information obtained from electrocardiographic (ECG) recordings to improve clinical decision-making and patient outcomes in hospital and pre-hospital settings. I helped develop a monitoring strategy, “reduced lead set” technology, a method to derive a multi-lead electrocardiogram from a reduced number of electrodes. I was invited to present my research in reduced lead set technology at the Einthoven Foundation’s Celebration of 100 years of the Electrocardiogram in the Netherlands in 2002. Einthoven won a Nobel Prize for inventing the ECG machine in 1902, and this celebration acknowledged scientists who had made important and lasting contributions to the field.
Results of studies from my research laboratory (ECG Monitoring Research Lab in the School of Nursing) have informed the development of ST-segment (ischemia) monitoring algorithms for cardiac monitors. We discovered causes of false ischemia monitoring alarms, such as changes in a patient’s body position, which can alter waveforms and mimic the electrocardiographic changes of myocardial ischemia. Our publications provided evidence for the importance of ischemia monitoring in patients presenting to the emergency room with chest pain or treated in hospital units for acute coronary syndromes. A series of studies from my laboratory have shown that transient ischemia following treatment for acute coronary syndromes is: (1) usually missed with routine “arrhythmia” monitoring leads, (2) associated with poor hospital outcomes and, (3) most often (80%) clinically silent (asymptomatic). In addition, we were the first to publish that automated ST segment ischemia monitoring provided prognostic information above and beyond the initial standard 12-lead ECG in patients with acute coronary syndrome.
Realizing that the under-utilization of ischemia monitoring by clinicians in emergency rooms and hospital units was due to a lack of clarity about how to perform it, I organized an international group of experts to develop a practice guideline. The resultant report was entitled, Multi-lead ST-segment monitoring in patients with acute coronary syndromes: A consensus statement for healthcare professionals, published in 1999. This guideline has influenced clinical practice internationally.
Recent studies have focused on ECG monitoring in emergency rooms and pre-hospital settings. I helped design computer software for an ambulance device capable of monitoring patients for ischemia using reduced lead set technology and automatically transmitting abnormal ECGs by cell phone to the destination hospital. Results from our study show that this pre-hospital monitoring strategy increases paramedic utilization of pre-hospital ECG, reduces time from 911call to first ECG, and reduces hospital time to treatment for acute coronary syndrome.
I have also worked recently on another goal of hospital ECG monitoring: QT interval monitoring. By monitoring QT intervals in patients who are started on potentially pro-arrhythmic drugs, it may be possible to prevent the complication of torsade de pointes, a cause of sudden cardiac death in hospital settings. I advised engineers to design an automated QT interval measurement strategy that was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 2008. After implementing the QT monitoring system in the 5 critical care units at Stanford Hospitals & Clinics, we found that a high proportion (24%) of patients had dangerous QT interval prolongation episodes and that they were 3 times more likely to have in-hospital death. I believe this upgrade to cardiac monitors will save nursing time by eliminating the need for manual measurements and provide more frequent, reliable, and accurate measurement of the QT interval and may prevent cardiac arrests in hospital settings.
In collaboration with a professor at Yale School of Nursing, we have been funded by NHLBI for a 5-yr, multi-center randomized clinical trial to implement the American Heart Association Practice Standards for ECG Monitoring in Hospital Settings and to determine whether it will improve nurse monitoring behaviors, quality of care, and patient outcomes. We developed interactive educational computer modules recommending the best practices for arrhythmia, ischemia, and QT interval monitoring for use in the study.
Currently, I am conducting a pilot study in post-heart-transplant patients to determine whether an increase in the QT interval measured with a home ECG device and transmitted to my research laboratory is an early biomarker for acute cardiac allograft rejection. If this noninvasive biomarker proves sensitive for the detection of acute rejection, then I will submit a proposal for a randomized clinical trial comparing it with routine invasive endomyocardial biopsies.

Publications: 

ECG-derived Cheyne-Stokes respiration and periodic breathing in healthy and hospitalized populations.

Annals of noninvasive electrocardiology : the official journal of the International Society for Holter and Noninvasive Electrocardiology, Inc

Tinoco A, Drew BJ, Hu X, Mortara D, Cooper BA, Pelter MM

Corrigendum to "QTc prolongation may be a late biomarker of orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT) rejection" [J Electrocardiol 49 (2016) 928-929].

Journal of electrocardiology

Carter EV, Castillo C, Chen B, Doering LV, Drew BJ, Hickey KT, Pickham D, Sciacca RR

QTc Prolongation May Be a Late Biomarker of Orthotopic Heart Transplantation (OHT) Rejection.

Journal of electrocardiology

Carter EV, Castillo C, Chen B, Doering LV, Drew BJ, Hickey KT, Pickham D, Sciacca RR

Signal Quality Differences Between Mason-likar and Lund Electrode Configurations.

Journal of electrocardiology

Fidler R, Sommargren C, Drew B, Hu X

In memoriam: A tribute to the work and lives of Ron Selvester and Rory Childers.

Journal of electrocardiology

Drew BJ, Sommargren CE, Tolan GD, Macfarlane PW, Wagner GS, Strauss DG, Burke MC, Kligfield PD, Rowlandson I, Lux RL

Human factors approach to evaluate the user interface of physiologic monitoring.

Journal of electrocardiology

Fidler R, Bond R, Finlay D, Guldenring D, Gallagher A, Pelter M, Drew B, Hu X

Computer-assisted interventions to improve QTc documentation in patients receiving QT-prolonging drugs.

American journal of critical care : an official publication, American Association of Critical-Care Nurses

Sandau KE, Sendelbach S, Fletcher L, Frederickson J, Drew BJ, Funk M

Reply: nurse practitioners (and other physician extenders) are not an appropriate replacement for expert physician electrocardiogram readers in routine clinical practice.

Journal of the American College of Cardiology

Drew BJ, Dracup K, Criley JM, Fung G, Marcus F, Mortara D, Laks M, Scheinman M

Novel approach to documenting expert ECG interpretation using eye tracking technology: a historical and biographical representation of the late Dr Rory Childers in action.

Journal of electrocardiology

Bond RR, Kligfield PD, Zhu T, Finlay DD, Drew B, Guldenring D, Breen C, Clifford GD, Wagner GS

Insights into the problem of alarm fatigue with physiologic monitor devices: a comprehensive observational study of consecutive intensive care unit patients.

PloS one

Drew BJ, Harris P, Zègre-Hemsey JK, Mammone T, Schindler D, Salas-Boni R, Bai Y, Tinoco A, Ding Q, Hu X

Integrating monitor alarms with laboratory test results to enhance patient deterioration prediction.

Journal of biomedical informatics

Bai Y, Do DH, Harris PR, Schindler D, Boyle NG, Drew BJ, Hu X

Finding ECG readers in clinical practice: is it time to change the paradigm?

Journal of the American College of Cardiology

Drew BJ, Dracup K, Childers R, Criley JM, Fung G, Marcus F, Mortara D, Laks M, Scheinman M

Heart rate variability measurement and clinical depression in acute coronary syndrome patients: narrative review of recent literature.

Neuropsychiatric disease and treatment

Harris PR, Sommargren CE, Stein PK, Fung GL, Drew BJ

Assessing computerized eye tracking technology for gaining insight into expert interpretation of the 12-lead electrocardiogram: an objective quantitative approach.

Journal of electrocardiology

Bond RR, Zhu T, Finlay DD, Drew B, Kligfield PD, Guldenring D, Breen C, Gallagher AG, Daly MJ, Clifford GD

Hyperglycemia is associated with corrected QT prolongation and mortality in acutely ill patients.

The Journal of cardiovascular nursing

Pickham D, Flowers E, Drew BJ

Electrocardiographic abnormalities in the first year after heart transplantation.

Journal of electrocardiology

Pickham D, Hickey K, Doering L, Chen B, Castillo C, Drew BJ

Arrhythmias in patients with acute coronary syndrome in the first 24 hours of hospitalization.

Heart & lung : the journal of critical care

Winkler C, Funk M, Schindler DM, Hemsey JZ, Lampert R, Drew BJ

Prehospital electrocardiographic manifestations of acute myocardial ischemia independently predict adverse hospital outcomes.

The Journal of emergency medicine

Zègre Hemsey JK, Dracup K, Fleischmann KE, Sommargren CE, Paul SM, Drew BJ

Complications of liver resection: laparoscopic versus open procedures.

JSLS : Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons / Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons

Slakey DP, Simms E, Drew B, Yazdi F, Roberts B

Time dependent history improves QT interval estimation in atrial fibrillation.

Journal of electrocardiology

Pickham D, Mortara D, Drew BJ

Latency of ECG displays of hospital telemetry systems: a science advisory from the American Heart Association.

Circulation

Turakhia MP, Estes NA, Drew BJ, Granger CB, Wang PJ, Knight BP, Page RL

Electrocardiographic characteristics of potential organ donors and associations with cardiac allograft use.

Circulation. Heart failure

Khush KK, Menza R, Nguyen J, Goldstein BA, Zaroff JG, Drew BJ

Early versus late surgery for traumatic spinal cord injury: the results of a prospective Canadian cohort study.

Spinal cord

Wilson JR, Singh A, Craven C, Verrier MC, Drew B, Ahn H, Ford M, Fehlings MG

Quasi-experimental study to improve nurses' QT-interval monitoring: results of QTIP study.

American journal of critical care : an official publication, American Association of Critical-Care Nurses

Pickham D, Shinn JA, Chan GK, Funk M, Drew BJ

Development and implementation of a critical pathway for patients with chest pain through action research.

European journal of cardiovascular nursing : journal of the Working Group on Cardiovascular Nursing of the European Society of Cardiology

Siebens K, Miljoen H, De Geest S, Drew B, Vrints C

Feasibility and compliance with daily home electrocardiogram monitoring of the QT interval in heart transplant recipients.

Heart & lung : the journal of critical care

Carter EV, Hickey KT, Pickham DM, Doering LV, Chen B, Harris PR, Drew BJ

High prevalence of corrected QT interval prolongation in acutely ill patients is associated with mortality: results of the QT in Practice (QTIP) Study.

Critical care medicine

Pickham D, Helfenbein E, Shinn JA, Chan G, Funk M, Weinacker A, Liu JN, Drew BJ

Prehospital electrocardiography: a review of the literature.

Journal of emergency nursing: JEN : official publication of the Emergency Department Nurses Association

Zègre Hemsey JK, Drew BJ

Prehospital 12-lead ST-segment monitoring improves the early diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome.

Journal of electrocardiology

Zègre Hemsey JK, Dracup K, Fleischmann K, Sommargren CE, Drew BJ

A simple strategy improves prehospital electrocardiogram utilization and hospital treatment for patients with acute coronary syndrome (from the ST SMART Study).

The American journal of cardiology

Drew BJ, Sommargren CE, Schindler DM, Benedict K, Zegre-Hemsey J, Glancy JP

How many patients need QT interval monitoring in critical care units? Preliminary report of the QT in Practice study.

Journal of electrocardiology

Pickham D, Helfenbein E, Shinn JA, Chan G, Funk M, Drew BJ

Prevention of torsade de pointes in hospital settings: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association and the American College of Cardiology Foundation.

Journal of the American College of Cardiology

Drew BJ, Ackerman MJ, Funk M, Gibler WB, Kligfield P, Menon V, Philippides GJ, Roden DM, Zareba W

Prevention of torsade de pointes in hospital settings: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association and the American College of Cardiology Foundation.

Circulation

Drew BJ, Ackerman MJ, Funk M, Gibler WB, Kligfield P, Menon V, Philippides GJ, Roden DM, Zareba W

Development and initial psychometric evaluation of the Patient Perspective of Arrhythmia Questionnaire.

Research in nursing & health

Wood KA, Stewart AL, Drew BJ, Scheinman MM, Frolicher ES

Patient perception of symptoms and quality of life following ablation in patients with supraventricular tachycardia.

Heart & lung : the journal of critical care

Wood KA, Stewart AL, Drew BJ, Scheinman MM, Froëlicher ES

Overcoming barriers to developing seamless ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction care systems in the United States: recommendations from a comprehensive Prehospital 12-lead Electrocardiogram Working Group.

Journal of electrocardiology

Frendl DM, Palmeri ST, Clapp JR, Hampton D, Sejersten M, Young D, Drew B, Farrell R, Innes J, Russell J, Rowlandson GI, Purim-Shem-Tov Y, Underhill BK, Zhou S, Wagner GS

Sequence of electrocardiographic and acoustic cardiographic changes and angina during coronary occlusion and reperfusion in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

Annals of noninvasive electrocardiology : the official journal of the International Society for Holter and Noninvasive Electrocardiology, Inc

Lee E, Drew BJ, Selvester RH, Michaels AD

QT/QTc interval monitoring in the emergency department.

Journal of emergency nursing: JEN : official publication of the Emergency Department Nurses Association

Pickham D, Drew BJ

Standardizing electrocardiographic leads: introduction to a symposium.

Journal of electrocardiology

Drew B, Kligfield P

Estimated body surface potential maps in emergency department patients with unrecognized transient myocardial ischemia.

Journal of electrocardiology

Drew BJ, Schindler DM, Zegre JK, Fleischmann KE, Lux RL

Dynamic tracking of ischemia in the surface electrocardiogram.

Journal of electrocardiology

Shusterman V, Goldberg A, Schindler DM, Fleischmann KE, Lux RL, Drew BJ

Atrial electrograms after cardiac surgery: survey of clinical practice.

American journal of critical care : an official publication, American Association of Critical-Care Nurses

Miller JN, Drew BJ

Critical care nurses in industry: deserters or leaders?

American journal of critical care : an official publication, American Association of Critical-Care Nurses

Drew BJ

The role of nurses in a chest pain unit.

European journal of cardiovascular nursing : journal of the Working Group on Cardiovascular Nursing of the European Society of Cardiology

Siebens K, Moons P, De Geest S, Miljoen H, Drew BJ, Vrints C

Novel electrocardiogram configurations and transmission procedures in the prehospital setting: effect on ischemia and arrhythmia determination.

Journal of electrocardiology

Drew BJ, Sommargren CE, Schindler DM, Zegre J, Benedict K, Krucoff MW

Prospective analysis of prevalence, distribution, and rate of recovery of left ventricular systolic dysfunction in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Journal of neurosurgery

Banki N, Kopelnik A, Tung P, Lawton MT, Gress D, Drew B, Dae M, Foster E, Parmley W, Zaroff J

Phonocardiographic timing of third and fourth heart sounds during acute myocardial infarction.

Journal of electrocardiology

Harris IS, Lee E, Yeghiazarians Y, Drew BJ, Michaels AD

Predictors of left ventricular regional wall motion abnormalities after subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Neurocritical care

Kothavale A, Banki NM, Kopelnik A, Yarlagadda S, Lawton MT, Ko N, Smith WS, Drew B, Foster E, Zaroff JG

Acute neurocardiogenic injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Circulation

Banki NM, Kopelnik A, Dae MW, Miss J, Tung P, Lawton MT, Drew BJ, Foster E, Smith W, Parmley WW, Zaroff JG

Designing prehospital ECG systems for acute coronary syndromes. Lessons learned from clinical trials involving 12-lead ST-segment monitoring.

Journal of electrocardiology

Drew BJ, Pelter MM, Lee E, Zegre J, Schindler D, Fleischmann KE

Practical implementation of the Guidelines for Unstable Angina/Non-ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction in the emergency department.

Annals of emergency medicine

Gibler WB, Cannon CP, Blomkalns AL, Char DM, Drew BJ, Hollander JE, Jaffe AS, Jesse RL, Newby LK, Ohman EM, Peterson ED, Pollack CV

Plasma B-type natriuretic peptide levels are associated with early cardiac dysfunction after subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Stroke; a journal of cerebral circulation

Tung PP, Olmsted E, Kopelnik A, Banki NM, Drew BJ, Ko N, Lawton MT, Smith W, Foster E, Young WL, Zaroff JG

Age and aneurysm position predict patterns of left ventricular dysfunction after subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography : official publication of the American Society of Echocardiography

Khush K, Kopelnik A, Tung P, Banki N, Dae M, Lawton M, Smith W, Drew B, Foster E, Zaroff J

Prevalence and implications of diastolic dysfunction after subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Neurocritical care

Kopelnik A, Fisher L, Miss JC, Banki N, Tung P, Lawton MT, Ko N, Smith WS, Drew B, Foster E, Zaroff J

Predictors of neurocardiogenic injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Stroke; a journal of cerebral circulation

Tung P, Kopelnik A, Banki N, Ong K, Ko N, Lawton MT, Gress D, Drew B, Foster E, Parmley W, Zaroff J

Optimal leads, estimation, and continuous monitoring improve detection of acute MI and transient ischemia.

Journal of electrocardiology

Lux R, Bilbao M, Pelter M, Fleischmann K, Zegre J, Schindler D, Drew B

Frequency and outcomes of transient myocardial ischemia in critically ill adults admitted for noncardiac conditions.

American journal of critical care : an official publication, American Association of Critical-Care Nurses

Booker KJ, Holm K, Drew BJ, Lanuza DM, Hicks FD, Carrigan T, Wright M, Moran J

Factors to consider when analyzing 12-lead electrocardiograms for evidence of acute myocardial ischemia.

American journal of critical care : an official publication, American Association of Critical-Care Nurses

Adams-Hamoda MG, Caldwell MA, Stotts NA, Drew BJ

Effects of aging and caloric restriction on mitochondrial energy production in gastrocnemius muscle and heart.

American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology

Drew B, Phaneuf S, Dirks A, Selman C, Gredilla R, Lezza A, Barja G, Leeuwenburgh C

Association of transient myocardial ischemia with adverse in-hospital outcomes for angina patients treated in a telemetry unit or a coronary care unit.

American journal of critical care : an official publication, American Association of Critical-Care Nurses

Pelter MM, Adams MG, Drew BJ

Celebrating the 100th birthday of the electrocardiogram: lessons learned from research in cardiac monitoring.

American journal of critical care : an official publication, American Association of Critical-Care Nurses

Drew BJ

Comparison of a new reduced lead set ECG with the standard ECG for diagnosing cardiac arrhythmias and myocardial ischemia.

Journal of electrocardiology

Drew BJ, Pelter MM, Brodnick DE, Yadav AV, Dempel D, Adams MG

Electrocardiographic repolarization abnormalities in subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Journal of electrocardiology

Sommargren CE, Zaroff JG, Banki N, Drew BJ

The first ISCE Board of "Trustees" overview panel session: ischemia monitoring, state of the art. International Society of Computerized Electrocardiology.

Journal of electrocardiology

Booker KJ, Drew BJ, Lux RL, Johanson P, Krucoff MW, Hampton D, Hubelbank M, Feild DQ, Stadler RW, Mortara DM

End-of-life issues in intensive care units: a national random survey of nurses' knowledge and beliefs.

American journal of critical care : an official publication, American Association of Critical-Care Nurses

Puntillo KA, Benner P, Drought T, Drew B, Stotts N, Stannard D, Rushton C, Scanlon C, White C

Lead wire reversal during 12-lead EKG monitoring.

Progress in cardiovascular nursing

Booker KJ, Holm K, Drew BJ, Ide B

How a rhythm strip aids in clinical diagnosis.

Progress in cardiovascular nursing

Ide B, Drew B

Real-time application of continuous 12-lead ST-segment monitoring: 3 case studies.

Critical care nurse

Crater SW, Taylor CA, Maas AC, Loeffler AK, Pope JE, Drew BJ, Krucoff MW

How is atrial tachycardia differentiated from atrial flutter?

Progress in cardiovascular nursing

Ide B, Drew BJ

Has this patient lost his lead?

Progress in cardiovascular nursing

Ide B, Drew BJ

Thoughts of hastening death among hospice patients.

The Journal of clinical ethics

Daly BJ, Hooks J, Youngner SJ, Drew B, Prince-Paul M

Frequency of silent myocardial ischemia with 12-lead ST segment monitoring in the coronary care unit: are there sex-related differences?

Heart & lung : the journal of critical care

Adams MG, Pelter MM, Wung SF, Taylor CA, Drew BJ

What is the most serious complication for patients with anorexia nervosa?

Progress in cardiovascular nursing

Fukoka Y, Ide B, Drew B

What is the most common arrhythmia following cardiac revascularization?

Progress in cardiovascular nursing

Kramer MJ, Ide B, Drew BJ

Accuracy of the EASI 12-lead electrocardiogram compared to the standard 12-lead electrocardiogram for diagnosing multiple cardiac abnormalities.

Journal of electrocardiology

Drew BJ, Pelter MM, Wung SF, Adams MG, Taylor C, Evans GT, Foster E

Peak time of occurrence of myocardial ischemia in the coronary care unit.

American journal of critical care : an official publication, American Association of Critical-Care Nurses

Pelter MM, Adams MG, Wung SF, Paul SM, Drew BJ

12-lead ST-segment monitoring vs single-lead maximum ST-segment monitoring for detecting ongoing ischemia in patients with unstable coronary syndromes.

American journal of critical care : an official publication, American Association of Critical-Care Nurses

Drew BJ, Pelter MM, Adams MG, Wung SF, Chou TM, Wolfe CL

The many rhythms of digitalis toxicity.

Progress in cardiovascular nursing

Ide B, Drew BJ

Use of the EKG in risk stratification.

Progress in cardiovascular nursing

Drew BJ, Ide B

Cardiac arrhythmias with aging.

Progress in cardiovascular nursing

Ide B, Drew BJ

Differential diagnosis of wide QRS complex tachycardia.

Progress in cardiovascular nursing

Drew BJ, Ide B

Estimating ischemic burden: comparison of two formulas.

American journal of critical care : an official publication, American Association of Critical-Care Nurses

Caldwell MA, Pelter M, Drew BJ

Body position effects on the ECG: implication for ischemia monitoring.

Journal of electrocardiology

Adams MG, Drew BJ

Frequency, duration, magnitude, and consequences of myocardial ischemia during intracoronary ultrasonography.

American heart journal

Drew BJ, Adams MG, McEldowney DK, Lau KY, Wung SF, Wolfe CL, Ports TA, Chou TM

Assisted suicide: implications for nurses and nursing.

Nursing outlook

Daly BJ, Berry D, Fitzpatrick JJ, Drew B, Montgomery K

Risk of thromboembolism in chronic atrial flutter.

The American journal of cardiology

Wood KA, Eisenberg SJ, Kalman JM, Drew BJ, Saxon LA, Lee RJ, Lesh MD, Scheinman MM

Computer versus manual measurement of ST-segment deviation.

Journal of electrocardiology

Pelter MM, Adams MG, Drew BJ

Comparison of standard and derived 12-lead electrocardiograms for diagnosis of coronary angioplasty-induced myocardial ischemia.

The American journal of cardiology

Drew BJ, Adams MG, Pelter MM, Wung SF, Caldwell MA

Frequency of disabling symptoms in supraventricular tachycardia.

The American journal of cardiology

Wood KA, Drew BJ, Scheinman MM

Is it safe to inject adenosine through a central line?

Progress in cardiovascular nursing

Drew BJ, Ide B

What's wrong with this atrial fibrillation?

Progress in cardiovascular nursing

Ide B, Drew BJ

An unexpected ST segment deviation during an exercise treadmill test.

Progress in cardiovascular nursing

Drew BJ, Ide B

Chest pain is an unreliable measure of ischemia in men and women during PTCA.

Heart & lung : the journal of critical care

Caldwell MA, Pelter MM, Drew BJ

ST segment monitoring with a derived 12-lead electrocardiogram is superior to routine cardiac care unit monitoring.

American journal of critical care : an official publication, American Association of Critical-Care Nurses

Drew BJ, Adams MG, Pelter MM, Wung SF

Diagnosing ischemia from the bedside monitor.

Progress in cardiovascular nursing

Drew BJ, Ide B

"Relative" sinus bradycardia.

Progress in cardiovascular nursing

Drew BJ, Ide B

ST segment deviation during myocardial ischemia: are there gender differences?

Progress in cardiovascular nursing

Pelter MM, Adams MG, Drew BJ

Does AV dissociation always mean heart block?

Progress in cardiovascular nursing

Ide B, Drew BJ

Computer versus manual measurement of ST-segment deviation.

Journal of electrocardiology

Pelter MM, Adams MG, Drew BJ

Monitoring paced rhythms.

Progress in cardiovascular nursing

Drew BJ, Ide B

Regular atrial fibrillation spells trouble.

Progress in cardiovascular nursing

Drew BJ, Ide B

Right ventricular infarction.

Progress in cardiovascular nursing

Drew BJ, Ide B

Pediatric tachycardias.

Progress in cardiovascular nursing

Drew BJ, Ide B, Witherell CL, Tong EM

Value of a derived 12-lead ECG for detecting transient myocardial ischemia.

Journal of electrocardiology

Drew BJ, Adams MG, Wung SF, Dower GE

Causes of sinus pauses.

Progress in cardiovascular nursing

Drew BJ, Ide B

T wave alternans.

Progress in cardiovascular nursing

Drew BJ, Ide B

Aberration versus ectopy.

Progress in cardiovascular nursing

Drew BJ, Ide B

Safety and efficacy of central intravenous bolus administration of adenosine for termination of supraventricular tachycardia.

Journal of the American College of Cardiology

McIntosh-Yellin NL, Drew BJ, Scheinman MM

ST segment monitoring for coronary artery reocclusion following thrombolytic therapy and coronary angioplasty: identification of optimal bedside monitoring leads.

American journal of critical care : an official publication, American Association of Critical-Care Nurses

Drew BJ, Tisdale LA

ST segment monitoring for myocardial ischemia.

AACN clinical issues in critical care nursing

Tisdale LA, Drew BJ

Bedside electrocardiogram monitoring.

AACN clinical issues in critical care nursing

Drew BJ

Bedside electrocardiographic monitoring: state of the art for the 1990s.

Heart & lung : the journal of critical care

Drew BJ

Accuracy of bedside electrocardiographic monitoring: a report on current practices of critical care nurses.

Heart & lung : the journal of critical care

Drew BJ, Ide B, Sparacino PS

MCL1 and MCL6 compared to V1 and V6 in distinguishing aberrant supraventricular from ventricular ectopic beats.

Pacing and clinical electrophysiology : PACE

Drew BJ, Scheinman MM, Dracup K

Bedside diagnosis of wide QRS complex tachycardia.

Critical care nursing quarterly

Drew BJ

Cardiac rhythm responses. 2. Review of 22 years of nursing research.

Heart & lung : the journal of critical care

Drew BJ